For latest details of Lute society meetings, see meetings. See also pictures from meetings and recordings from meetings.
Some agendas from previous meetings are listed below.
Saturday 19th November at the Dutch Church - a talk on improvisation and recital by improvisation expert Paula Chateauneuf, and an exploration of a recently discovered cache of baroque music manuscripts in Ghent, presented by their discoverer, Greet Schamp, with mini-recitals of their music for voice, lutes, cittern, baroque guitar, and baroque harp, each given by leading players of those instruments. A joint meeting with the Belgian Lute Academy.
- The Noodle Factory: how to create ornamentation and divisions in the manner of the great Improv Masters of the lute and other instruments, a talk by Paula Chateauneuf
- The Ghent music manuscripts, Greet Schamp presents her recent discovery of a cache of music manuscripts from Ghent
- Mini-recital Greet Schamp plays 12-course lute music from the Ghent MSS
- Mini-recital Taro Takeuchi plays baroque guitar music from the Ghent MSS
- Mini-recital Enzo Puzzovio plays diatonic cittern music from the Ghent MSS
- Mini-recital Frances Kelly plays baroque harp music from the Ghent MSS
- Home-made cake, tea and Belgian beer tasting
- Mini-recital Richard MacKenzie plays 11-course lute music from the Ghent MSS
- Mini-recital Richard MacKenzie plays music from the last volume of Brian Wright’s Musica Natalis, lute music for Xmas
- The Lute Society Recital, The Final Flourish: a celebration of the exuberant and extravagant late Golden Age, a recital by Paula Chateauneuf
10-Sep-2016, 60th birthday event. This was not at the Dutch Church, but instead at our historic home, (where our foundress Diana Poulton heard Arnold Dolmetsch playing the lute a century ago) the Art Workers Guild, Bloomsbury
To mark the 60th anniversary of our inaugural meeting, held in October 1956, our meeting had a festive character with lots of music, besides trips down memory lane with members who were there in the very early days, space to think about what has changed in early music over six decades, cake and wine.
- ‘A Little Learning is a Dangerous Thing’: Our Ever-changing View of the Lute and its Music, a talk by Anthony Bailes, followed by floor discussion.
- If you can remember the ’60s: a panel of veteran members recall the early days, with slide show.
- Mini-recital: Sara Stowe and Matthew Spring perform songs by Nicholas Lanier.
- Mini-recital: The Lachrimae Consort play consort music in tribute to our founder, Ian Harwood.
- Mini-recital: Duo Piccolo e Grande play mandolin and theorbo duets.
- The first Lute Society recital: Nigel North plays the programme from the first ever Lute Society recital, given by Desmond Dupré in October 1956.
- Cutting of the home-made lute-cake, with tea and wine.
- The Lute Society Recital: ‘Les Cloches de Vienne’ – Lute Music from Salzburg and Vienna, played by Anthony Bailes.
7-May-2016 at the Dutch Church: AGM, a mini-recital on 12-course lute, and talk on messy manuscripts by Evan Plommer, a talk on the Emilian lutenists, and on her theorbo tutor, and a recital of Italian archlute music by Francesco Torelli, talk and mini-recital by John Reeve on his original 17th century lute.
This meeting was be an international affair, with British, Canadian and Italian speakers and performers, and had a decidedly 17th century flavour.
- Lute Society AGM
- The Emilian Lutenists; and a theorbo tutor, a talk by Francesca Torelli.
- Mini-recital ‘Flat tuning orphans from Messy Manuscripts’, on 12-course lute, by Evan Plommer
- What can we do with messy manuscripts? a talk by Evan Plommer
- An original 17th century lute, mini-recital and talk by John Reeve
- Tea, wine and home-made cake
- The Lute Society Recital, Francesca Torelli plays Italian archlute music of the 17th and 18th centuries
30-Jan-2016 - Original instruments day
Meeting held at the Dutch Church. We had seven original plucked string instruments, played by some of today's leading players. Several of these instruments are on special loan from museums so this is a unique opportunity. And we enjoyed recitals by talented younger players, Yavor Genov and Jadran Duncumb.
- The Ledbury Lute: a very rare museum example of a Regency period ‘Modern Lute’ plus an original Apollo lyre and a Light harp-lute; a talk by Chris Egerton, with demonstrations by Taro Takeuchi
- Mini-recital music of Dowland, Kapsberger and others, by Yavor Genov
- An original instrument project, a talk with mini-recital on original 18th century guitars (Baroque and English) from a museum in Japan, by Taro Takeuchi
- Who was Behind the Making of the First Spanish Guitars in London? a talk by James Westbrook of The Guitar Museum; with a chance to see an early extant example belonging to Taro Takeuchi.
- Tea, wine and home-made cake
- The Lute Society Recital, Jadran Duncumb (winner of the 2015 Maurizio Pratola competition) performs baroque lute music by Gallot, Mouton and Weiss
12-Sep-2015 - Learning the lute and young performers showcase
In what was surely an appropriate pairing, our meeting combined talks on the theme of how people learnt the lute in two of its Golden Ages, renaissance England and baroque Austria, with a young artists’ showcase, giving us a chance to enjoy the music of the rising generation of students and your professionals.
- Lute pedagogy in renaissance England: Methods and motivations, a talk by Michael Gale
- Teaching and learning the lute in baroque Austria, a talk by Tim Crawford
- Mini-recital by Mattia Corda
- Mini-recital, Niki Andronikou plays the Cypriot lute, and Marina Deligianni sings Greek and Cypriot songs.
- Mini-recital by Sam Brown
- Mini-recital by Thomas Mollett
- Mini-recital by by Ensemble Jenn of Paris
- The Lute Society Recital, Alex McCartney plays lute music in accords nouveaux
9-May-2015 - Spring meeting
At the Dutch Church AGM (including constitutional vote on restriction on number of times president can stand), Jean-Marie Poirier and Thierry Meunier gave a talk on baroque lute duets and baroque lute duet recital, and there was an illustrated talk on Galilei by Zak Ozmo.
- AGM (including, vote on occasionally paying for meetings, presidential election, vote on restriction on number of times president can stand to two terms)
- Baroque lute duets, illustrated talk from Jean-Marie Poirier and Thierry Meunier
- Mini-recital, by Andrew Maginley, 13c baroque lute music by Weiss, Bach and Hagen
- Presentation of newly made children’s hire lute by Tim Southon, to be played by Pat Glynn
- Vincenzo Galilei, a talk from Zak Ozmo
- The folding theorbo, a talk and demonstration by Klaus Jacobsen
- The Lute Society Recital, Jean-Marie Poirier and Thierry Meunier play baroque lute duets
31-Jan-2015 - Three "Golden Ages" of the lute
Our first meeting of the new year celebrated three ‘Golden Ages’ of the lute: 17th century France, with a talk, mini-recital and recital by Benjamin Narvey; 18th century Germany, with a mini-recital of the music of Weiss, by Richard Mackenzie, and an afternoon dedicated to John Dowland, with a mini-recital by Michele Carreca, and a forum discussing Dowland’s graces, led by Christopher Wilson and Martin Shepherd.
- The luth double, an illustrated talk on a neglected French 17th century lute, by Benjamin Narvey, followed by a mini-recital, with Oliver Webber, violin
- Mini-recital, Richard Mackenzie plays music by S. L. Weiss.
- Mini-recital, Michele Carreca plays music from his new Dowland album
- Dowland’s ornaments, a forum with talks by Christopher Wilson and Martin Shepherd, followed by floor discussion
- The Lute Society Recital, Benjamin Narvey plays French and German baroque lute music
About the artists:
15-Nov-2014 Thomas Mace "Lute Dyphone" day - the wonder of the age!
An unmissable meeting. Over the years we have often dreamt of a reconstruction of one of the most extraordinary lutes of the 17th century, Thomas Mace’s ‘lute dyphone’. Now at last Italian luthier Antonio Dattis has built a copy—and it sounds great! It was shipped to England specially for this meeting, and it may be many years before it comes here again—this may have been your best chance to see and hear it. Davide Rebuffa played a mini-recital on it, besides presenting his recently published history of the lute. Mimmo Peruffo made a guest appearance to talk about the strings. We also welcomed two lute song duos, Elena Cicinskaite and Marina Theodoropoulou, and Brian Wright with Jeni Melia.
- Coffee and welcome to new members
- The Milanese lutenists, a talk by Franco Pavan
- Mini-recital, Elena Cicinskaite and Marina Theodoropoulou perform lute songs
- Mini-recital Brian Wright and Jeni Melia perform Christmas carols in Brian Wright’s new arrangements
- Mace’s Lute dyphone; a reconstruction, talk by Antonio Dattis, mini-recital by Davide Rebuffa, and talk on strings by Mimmo Peruffo.
- A new history of the lute, a presentation by David Rebuffa
3-Sep-2014 French and Italian day
At the first of two meetings with a mostly Italian flavour, with talks on the composer Fallamero and on the music of the Thibaut manuscript; and a main recital of lute and theorbo duets. In fact there is another Italian connection in the shape of the diarist Samuel Pepys’s guitar teacher Morelli, who made many of the song arrangements found in his music manuscripts, a selection of which will appear in a forthcoming edition of baroque guitar songs, and which will be previewed in a mini-recital by Jon Rattenbury and friends. Something we have never had at a Lute Society meeting is dancing to the baroque guitar and English guitar..
- The lute music of Gabriel Fallamero, a talk by Massimo Marchese
- Mini-recital, Wezi Elliott, Jon Rattenbury, David Protheroe and ensemble perform music including Lully songs from Samuel Pepys’s MSS
- Mini-recital with dance display, Taro Takeuchi plays French baroque guitar music and English guitar music, with dancer
- The Thibault Manuscript, talk and mini-recital by Hector Sequera, and ensemble.
- The Lute Society Recital, ‘Toccate, canzoni e correnti nel pizzicar di corde’ concert of lute and theorbo duets by Massimo Marchese and Elena Cicinskaite
22-Feb-2014, Lute Symbolism day
As we all know the lute has a rich and complex symbolic language, which was not only a matter for the musings of artists and salon intellectuals, but which actually fed back into the music that was composed for it.
- The lute as emblem, a talk by Simon Rees
- Orpheus Reviv’d, a talk by Anthony Rooley
- To pluck or not to pluck, is that a question? a talk by Anthony Rooley
- Constantijn Huygens’ Harmonic Garden, a talk by Judy Tarling, illustrated with songs performed by James Bramley and Roseanna Skikun
- The Lute Society Recital ‘Orphan Wailings’ recital by Evelyn Tubb, Anthony Rooley, Ziv Braha
16-Nov-2013, French Baroque day
- Reconstructing the Praetorius harp-lute, a talk by student luthier Sheldon Gabriel
- Observations on the lute in 17th Century France, A source hitherto unrecognised, a talk by Fred Jacobs
- Mini-recital Benjamin Narvey plays French baroque lute music, by Gaultier le Vieux, Mouton, Gallot and Visée, on a gut-strung French lute by Stephen Gottlieb.
- A lesson with Charles Mouton, Chris Wilson imagines a lesson with Mouton from what we know of his technique
- The Lute Society Recital: Confidences Galantes, Fred Jacobs plays French theorbo music by Robert de Visée, also by Nicolas Hotman, Charles Hurel and Estienne le Moine, from his new CD, on a French theorbo by Michael Lowe.
14-Sep-2013, Young Players' Day
The day was an invitation to come and hear the star players of tomorrow! Plus an intriguing talk on the application of technology to recreating lost sounds of the past.
- Mini-recital Alex Pullinger, lute
- Mini-recital Toby Carr, baroque guitar and lute
- Sounds from silence, using technology to recreate lost musical sounds, a talk by Chris Egerton
- Mini-recital by Hana Alivodic, baroque lute
- Presentation of new treble lute by James Malt, played by Carl Suter
- Mini-recital Alex McCartney, lute, Michael Solomon Williams, tenor, Emma Bradley Mantero, soprano
- Mini-recital Sam Brown, lute, and Marie Jaermann, soprano
- Mini-recital James Bramley, theorbo, Mie Ito, baroque harp and Roseanna Skikun, soprano
- Some reflections on lute song performance, a short talk by Dame Emma Kirkby
- The Lute Society Recital, a concert of lute duets played by Sam Chapman and Ryosuke Sakamoto
12-Jan-2013, held at the Dutch Church, with star guest performer Paul O'Dette, (fresh from his Dowland recital at the Wigmore Hall on Thursday 10th).
- Lute technique a talk by Paul O’Dette, followed by question and answer session
- Mini-recital, Richard Mackenzie plays lute music by Bianchini
- Mini-recital of music by Caccini, Castaldi and Monteverdi, performed by Charlotte Osborn and Oskar Werninge (theorbo)
- Mini-recital of music by Dowland and Purcell, performed by Anna Thunstrom and Wezi Elliott
- The Lute Society Recital, Paul O’Dette plays English and Continental renaissance lute music.
17-Nov-2012, held at the Dutch Church: Accords nouveaux day on early 17th century 'transitional tunings' music. It was a chance to hear and find out about a lute repertoire far too seldom played.
- Swiss soldiers in Paris: music in accords nouveaux instead of yodelling, a talk by Andreas Schlegel
- Mini-recital, Martin Eastwell plays transitional tuning 12-course lute music from the Wemyss lute book
- ‘The 1612 Overture’ a mini-recital to mark some quatercentenaries: by Din Ghani with Musicke in the Ayre (Helen Atkinson, Jeni Melia and Esha Neogy)
- The accords nouveaux : a survey of their history, sources and music. a talk by Francois-Pierre Goy [indisposed] talk read by our Chairman, Luke Emmet
- The Lute Society Recital, ‘Les Accords Extraordinaires’ Sigrun Richter plays suites by François Dufaut, Pierre Gaultier, and René Mezangeau.
8-Sep-2012 at the Dutch Church: Little lutes and mandolins day.
The modern lute revival has happily taken large lutes and theorboes to its heart, but less attention has been paid to little lutes, and closely related mandolin-family instruments. For this themed day, which explored the world of these neglected instruments, we welcomed international artists and experts from Gemany and Italy, to talk about and perform plucked string music for the smaller lutes.
- Early mandolin in historical iconography and modern practice. a talk by Giorgio Ferraris
- Show-and-tell and mini-recital, a mammoth ivory mandolin replica, discussed and played by Enzo Puzzovio, accompanied by Stewart McCoy
- The relationship between lute and early mandolin, a talk by Susanne Herre
- Show-and-tell, and talk: Taro Takeuchi discusses original round-backed English guitars from his collection, and Peter Holman discusses the life and musical activities of Ann Ford
- The Lute Society Recital: the Ensemble Baschenis play Italian music for two mandolins, theorbo and cello
5-May-2012 at the Dutch Church - our AGM and Latin American day.
For this exciting themed day, we welcomed international artists and experts from Argentina, Spain and the Netherlands, to talk about and perform historical plucked string music from Latin America. At the AGM we elected a new President, David Van Edwards. Carlos Gonzales was the guest luthier and brought plans and posters of the Quito vihuela.
- Annual General Meeting, agenda as usual, but also to included election of new president, and discussion of constitution
- Plucked instruments and their repertoire in Latin America, from the 16th to the 19th century, a talk by Gabriel Schebor
- Iberian influences in Japanese music, a short talk, and mini-recital, by David van Ooijen
- Mini-recital, music of Dowland and Michelangelo Galilei, Alex McCartney
- New information on the Quito vihuela, and a replica, a talk by Carlos Gonzalez with demonstration recital by Mabel Ruiz
- The Lute Society Recital: Gabriel Schebor and Ana Paula Segurola play baroque guitar and harpsichord duets
9-Feb-2012: Held at the Dutch Church, included mini recitals of music by Ballard and new music by Brian Wright, with a Bach recital by Bill Carter. The guest luthier was Tony Johnson. Wilfred Foxe's new edition of the Bach lute works, for 13c lute, was on sale, along with other new editions.
- Coffee and welcome to new members/beginners
- Authenticity and modern lute technique - time to think again? A talk by Martin Eastwell.
- Mini-recital, the music of Robert Ballard, by Simon Linne
- Mini-recital of new lute songs by Brian Wright and Jeni Melia.
- Bach's lute works, a pre-concert talk by William Carter
- The Lute Society Recital: William Carter plays Bach.
19-Nov-2011: Our November meeting was as varied as could be, ranging from Elizabethan, through baroque, to our own computer age; also a very cosmpolitan affair, with Hector Sequera from Venezuela, Susan King from New Zealand playing baroque lute music from an Australian manuscript, and a Polish concert duo LuteDuo. Marcos Kaiser Mori was present as a guest luthier.
- The Paston lute books: a talk by Hector Sequera
- Presentation of Baroque lute music from an Australian lute book, played by Susan King
- Presentation of contemporary Australian and Tasmanian lute music, played by Susan King
- The Electronic Corpus of Lute Music, a collaborative project for lutenists worldwide: a talk and live on-screen demonstration by Tim Crawford
- The Lute Society recital: Anna Kowalska and Anton Birula play baroque guitar and theorbo duets
On 10-Sep-2011 we had our Hungarian lute day, at the Hungarian Cultural Centre, 10 Maiden Lane, Covent Garden, London WC2E 7NA www.hungary.org.uk
A day of talks and concerts, jointly organised with The Hungarian Cultural Centre, exploring the rich and fascinating heritage of the lute in Hungary, from the renaissance to the living tradition of the koboz and its music. The Kecskés Ensemble from Szentendre played ancient Hungarian music; a rich sound-world of lutes, theorbo, harp, psaltery, koboz, recorder, gourd-fiddle, Turkish pipe, gemshorn, crumhorn, viola da gamba, hurdy gurdy, renaissance guitar, and song, and other instruments. It was a rare chance to hear this pioneering music group, on a visit to England.
Tünde Fábri-Ivánovics and Géza Fábri are a duo from Szeged who play the oldest strata of Hungarian and East European folk music, reviving a heritage rooted in the Middle Ages, with a finely wrought yet sincere performance style. Their unique sound is established by Tünde Ivánovics’ voice and Géza Fábri’s koboz (or cobză), an ancient East European instrument. This simple combination is used in a deep and conscious way to create music that is both a true tribute to the spirit of tradition, and at the same time a thrilling novelty in each moment.
- András Kecskes: The 150 years of renaissance lute in Hungary
- Presentation of lute made by David van Edwards’ summer school students; Wilfred Foxe will play on it a tombeau for Ian Harwood
- Tünde Fábri-Ivánovics and Géza Fábri ‘Ha folyóvíz volnék . . .’ / ‘If I were a river . . .’; traditional singing and koboz music in the cultural heritage of the ‘csángó’ Hungarians from Moldva
- Musical finale
On 12-Feb-2011 we had our Jumbo Manuscript day, with recital by Stewart McCoy playing from the Mathew Holmes manuscript, Dd.2.11. Programme included:
- Mathew Holmes' greatest lute book, Cambridge MS Dd.2.11 - some new discoveries, a talk by Stewart McCoy
- Notation and ornamentation in 17th century French lute music, part 2: the courante, a short lecture recital by Chris Wilson
- The Balcarres lute book, a facsimile and edition, a talk by Matthew Spring
- The Thysius Lute Book, a talk by Jan Burgers
- The Lute Society recital, Stewart McCoy plays music from Mathew Holmes lute book, Dd.2.11
21-May-2011 Each year, the Spring meeting, at which the AGM is held, consists mostly of music, and this year we had a real extravaganza: a one-day festival of lute song, with the launch of two new Lute Society editions of songs (one old and one new) and no fewer than six mini-recitals by lute song duos and trios. At a time when there is concern about the "greying" of classical music audiences and performers alike, note that a number of the performers have the freshness of youth about them, being current or recent students. The day concluded with a performance of Italian theorbo music from Cristina Lyssimachou, an unusually gifted student at the conservatory in Vicenza, Italy.
- AGM, agenda as usual
- Jeni Melia and Din Ghani perform lute songs not by, but connected with John Dowland
- English Ayres (Jeni Melia, Helen Price, Chris Goodwin, Alison Kinder) present a new Lute Society edition of cavalier partsongs
- A Garden of Eloquence (Katharine Hawnt, Ziv Braha, Uri Smilansky) perform lute songs by John Danyel
- Rebecca Bouckley, Sophie Brumfitt and Chris Goodwin perform women's theorbo songs of the Restoration, and Italian duets.
- CN Lester and Toby Carr perform 'Touches of Sweet Harmony: Shakespearean lute songs', including pieces by Johnson, Morley and Jones.
- Dionysios Kyropoulos, Rebecca Gibson, and Michael Fields perform lute songs for bass, soprano, and dialogues, by Notari, Dowland, Caccini, Humfrey, Purcell, and Eccles.
- The Lute Society recital: Cristina Lyssimachou performs Italian theorbo music by Piccinini, Kapsberger and Castaldi
November 20th, 2010 at the Dutch Church. The long-awaited facsimile of Dd.2.11 was on sale, and Nigel North gave the main recital, and a talk on Dowland.
- John Dowland, aspects of interpretation, a talk by Nigel North
- Lutecosmos, a new approach to lute teaching, a talk by Brian Wright
- Mudarra's vihuela songs, talk and mini-recital by Matthew Spring and Sara Stowe
- Mini-recital of new Shakespeare songs, by Brian Wright with soprano Jeni Melia
- The Lute Society recital: Nigel North plays music by John Dowland
Guest luthier: Jorge Senteiro
New publications on sale: the long awaited facsimile of Mathew Holmes MS, Dd.2.11; Brian Wright's Lutecosmos; Gilbert Isbin's 25 easy pieces; 114 easy pieces; Thomas Mace, 8 setts from Musick's Monument.
September 11th, 2010 at the Dutch Church, the theme of the day was Thomas Mace, the man and his music, with talks by Benjamin Narvey, and David van Edwards, and talks reflecting Mace's interest in the viol. The day was crowned with the presentation of a 12 course lute in French flat tuning, typical of Mace's day, newly made by David van Edwards and students, for the Society's hire fleet, on which Matthew Spring played one of Mace's suites. Finally Rosemary Hodgson gave the afternoon's main recital, of music by Dowland, John Johnson, Bacheler, Robinson, Ferrabosco, Rosseter and Danyel.
February 6th, 2010, at the Dutch Church, we had a day dedicated to the theme of lute strings, starting at 10.45, with talks by George Stoppani and Mimmo Peruffo, plus mini-recitals by Richard Mackenzie, and soprano Jeni Melia accompanied by Brian Wright; and at 4.30 a recital of French baroque lute music by Claire Antonini.
8-May-2010 As is our wont, after going through the rigours of the AGM we enjoyed a day made up mostly of music, with mini-recitals by Dale Harris, and David Protheroe, a talk and demonstration on the use of gestures in lute song, a recital by Dutch lute duo David van Ooijen and Michiel Niessen, following their superb recording of the (very hard) Terzi duets, Un’ altra canzona . Following recent trips to the Continent, we had on sale most of the published editions of French, Belgian, Spanish and Dutch lute societies, including the recent Thysius lute book facsimile.
- Gestures in lute song, talk and demonstration by Rosemary Carlton-Willis, accompanied by David Miller
- Mini-recital of Sanz and Vivaldi transcriptions on 13 course lute, played by Dale Harris.
- Mini-recital of lute songs performed, self-accompanied, by David Protheroe
- The Lute Society recital, David van Ooijen and Michiel Nissen play renaissance lute duets
November 21 Special meeting at the Dutch Church, Austin Friars, London EC2, ‘Dancing to the lute’ joint event with Early Dance Circle, with demonstrations of renaissance and baroque dances to the lute [musicians: Dawn Johnston, Julia Raeburn, Matthew Spring], and grand finale at 4pm: the audience was invited to take the floor and re-enact the Inns of Court dances, to music from a 6-part broken consort [Lovekyn Consort].
Saturday, January 17th at the Swedenborg Hall, Bloomsbury Way (nearest tube: Holborn)
- Talk on the mediaeval lute, by Francisco Orozco
- Mini-recital, Yair Avidor plays baroque lute
- Notation, ornamentation and interpretation in French baroque lute music, a detailed look at some 17th century French lute pieces; talk by Chris Wilson
- Mini-recital, Jeni Melia and Brian Wright perform some of Brian Wright’s recently composed Shakespeare songs
- The Lute Society recital: Francisco Orozco plays and sings mediaeval lute music and songs.
April 18 at the Swedenborg Hall, Bloomsbury Way (nearest tube: Holborn)
- The world's earliest guitar? The Warwick cithole, a 14th century instrument recently restored in the British Musuem, a talk by Chris Egerton
- Mini-recital, of lute duets played by Luke Emmet and Kevin Drake
- Extended break, beginning with a guided walk to see the Warwick cithole in gallery 41 of the British Museum.
- Annual General Meeting; agenda and minutes as circulated with December Lute News
- Mini-recital, of baroque guitar music by Bartolotti, played by Gordon Ferries
- The Lute Society recital, Jakob Lindberg plays 13 course baroque lute, music by Kellner, Bach, Reusner, and Scottish tunes.